The company's official, legal name is the one by which it is registered with the government agency of the country in which the corporation is incorporated (e.g. here in the UK, Companies House).
The company can have as as many logos as it likes and they can look like whatever it wants them to, but that doesn't change the legal name of the company (which cannot contain graphics in any jurisdiction, so far as I'm aware).
Restrictions vary by country, here is a summary of the UK ones:
What will be disregarded?
The full list is set out in the regulations. They include:
designated name endings (including permitted abbreviations and Welsh equivalents), e.g. "limited", "unlimited", "public limited company"
certain words and expressions including "biz", "co", "co.uk", "com", "company", "UK", "United Kingdom", "Wales", "Cymru", "net", "org.uk", "services", "international"
a blank space between or after a word, expression, character, sign or symbol
punctuation including a full stop, comma, colon, bracket, apostrophe
characters "*", "=", "#", "%" and "+" when used as one of the first three
characters in a name
"s" at the end of a name (irrespective of whether it is a plural)
"the" and "www" at the beginning of a name
any characters after the first 60 characters in a name
In more detail - here is the law which (here in the UK) governs what symbols may be used in company names:
- (1) This regulation sets out the characters, signs, symbols and punctuation that may be used in the name of a company registered under
the Act (“the permitted characters”).
(2) The following permitted characters may be used in any part of the
(a)any character, sign or symbol set out in table 1 in Schedule 1;
(b)0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9;
(c)full stop, comma, colon, semi-colon or hyphen; and
(d)any other punctuation referred to in column 1 of table 2 in Schedule 1 but only in one of the forms set out opposite that punctuation in column 2 of that table.
(3) The signs and
symbols set out in table 3 in Schedule 1 are permitted characters that
may be used but not as one of the first three permitted characters of
(4) The name must not consist of more than 160 permitted characters.
The Company and Business Names (Miscellaneous Provisions) Regulations 2009
On the issue of capitalization: here in the UK company names do not contain uppercase/lowercase - they are all in uppercase (see a company search). The company can refer to itself using whatever case it wants to.
Usually a company name will be treated by third parties the same as any other proper noun in English; if the company name is an abbreviation then it will be treated the same as any other abbreviation in English.
tl;dr: the logo doesn't set the name of the company.