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What tense should be used after "in case" or "in case of"? For instance, is the following sentence correct?

"Just imagine that in case of a dispute with her husband she leaves home."

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Your example is grammatically correct, but it's a little unclear and it sounds like the woman leaves home as a precaution, when you probably want to say something like "Just imagine if she had a dispute with her husband and left home". "In case" is not synonymous with "if", as explained here.

Generally:

"In case" is a conjunction or adverb and usually followed by a full sentence with subject and predicate of any tense. "In case of" is a preposition followed by a noun. A nominalized verb (usually in present tense ing-form) could technically follow, but you would normally use "in case" without the "of" instead.

Examples:

In case of emergency, smash glass.
I keep food in my car in case an earthquake hits and I have to evacuate.

But:

You should always carry condoms, just in case.
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