I’m not a native English speaker and it seems I can’t find enough suitable and different phrases for introducing lists. I’m writing an abstract for a scientific conference and would like to avoid word repetition in such a short text. I used the phrases “Preferred topics include ...” and “Key questions include: ...”. Do you have any suggestions to preserve the original (or close) meaning of the phrases without repeating the word include?

  • You could drop the word "include" from these headings and just include a bullet-point list of topics, questions etc. below the headings of "Preferred Topics", "Key Questions" and any others... – Marv Mills Nov 7 '14 at 14:38
  • Thank you for suggestion, but in humanities, for the purpose of the conference, it is more or less expected to write in full sentences. – Živa Ender Nov 7 '14 at 14:43
  • Do you mean you've already used the phrases "Preferred topics include" and ""Key questions include" and you want to say the same thing a third time without using the same words? If this is just a short abstract then why are you saying the same thing so many times? – A E Nov 7 '14 at 14:52
  • No, I initially wrote those 2 phrases and would like to change one of them. – Živa Ender Nov 7 '14 at 14:54
  • Important topics, main issues, areas of concern, items to consider... – Hot Licks Nov 8 '14 at 0:48

Some key topics are...

Key topics are...

Key topics contain...

Key topics not restricted to...

Key topics can encompass...

Key topics range from ... to ...

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  • Thank you, I was not sure if the word encompass in this context is correct. – Živa Ender Nov 7 '14 at 14:55
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    The problem is that by using the word "include" you are saying that you are only listing some of the items and not all possible items. If that is the case then it is difficult to find synonyms for include. Encompasses may only be partially relevant but is a way to define that the list that follows is not exhaustive. You probably do mean to include an exhaustive list (why list only some of the key topics?) and so "include" and its synonyms is not a good choice of word and you should use "Preferred Topics are..." and "Key Questions are..." – Marv Mills Nov 7 '14 at 15:01
  • Actually it's not a paper, but a panel, and I would like to allow/encourage people to include topics and questions I don't list in proposal. That's why I have a hard time finding a synonim for "include". – Živa Ender Nov 7 '14 at 15:13
  • Ah right, okay. – Marv Mills Nov 7 '14 at 15:34

You can say:

Key questions are ... .


Key questions consist of ... .


A, B, C are among the key questions ... .

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  • Thank you. I guess I could also use: Prefferd topics encompass ... and then Key questions include ..., right? – Živa Ender Nov 7 '14 at 14:56
  • Yeah, you can I suppose. I didn't add encompass as I felt it's not so common; but it's totally correct. – Neeku Nov 7 '14 at 14:59
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    I like "A, B, C are among the key questions ..." more – Always Asking Nov 7 '14 at 15:01
  • @ŽivaEnder No problem. Just don't forget to upvote the answers that helped you by clicking the up arrow on the left of each answer; and accept the most helpful answer by clicking on the check mark under the arrows. – Neeku Nov 7 '14 at 15:07

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