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I am looking for a hypernym for words such as geography (Earth) and areography (Mars), primarily out of curiosity.

In my workplace, we have a database and that has a column for "geo_id" which of course refers to Earth. A Friday afternoon conversation once led to a discussion of what would happen if we were to serve multiple planets.

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    Cosmography is the traditional term, I think. – Yoav Kallus Oct 24 '14 at 18:39
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Geography itself can be considered a hypernym but to be more specific you can say planetary geography.

While the discipline of geography is normally concerned with the Earth, the term can also be informally used to describe the study of other worlds, such as the planets of the Solar System and even beyond.

The study of other planets is usually called planetary science.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography

For example, planetary geography is mentioned as a course in Texas A&M University. Below is a passage from course curriculum:

Planetary geography provides the opportunity to study Earth's geomorphic processes operating in different planetary environments, which may lead to a better understanding of Earth. The curriculum consists of six units, including an introduction to physical geography and the solar system, a review of planetary morphologic processes, and units about the Moon, Mercury, Venus, and Mars. The introduction to the solar system provides basic information about stars, planets, and galaxies. The introduction also describes the types of bodies that make up the solar system and their spatial distribution. The unit on planetary morphologic processes reviews tectonism, volcanism, and gradational processes, which are taught in introductory geology and geography courses, and introduces the process of impact cratering.

http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1997-THESIS-B79?show=full

Though, planetary sciences usually separates different aspects of geography into different fields and focuses on them individually.

It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science, but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary astronomy, planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_science

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