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The connotation of adjective 'appropriate' is positive, while that of the verb is negative.

1. What's this phenomenon called, though this question allows any part of speech (and not just an adjective and verb, as above)? I ask this so that I can try to find lists of such words.

2. Why? Does the etymology depend on each word, or is there a more general theory?

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To answer part 2, the etymology of appropriate is:

from late Latin appropriatus, past participle of appropriare ‘make one's own,’ from ad- ‘to’ + proprius ‘own, proper.’

So it comes from a root that means both own and proper. The verb that means to take comes from the first sense (other words that are obviously related are proprietary and proprietor); the adjective that means suitable comes from the second sense.

Note that the verb isn't always negative. Another sense is:

devote (money or assets) to a special purpose : there can be problems in appropriating funds for legal expenses.

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