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I read a book about how the capital limits of a company are limited by the risk inhereted in the complete industry sector. They give as an example oil companies and the last paragraph is:

One last point on the oil and gas industry is to note that some of the
strongest companies in the world are in this sector (e.g., Exxon Mobil,
Chevron Texaco). While some of these firms were dealt a great hand as
spin-offs from the John D. Rockefeller organization way back when, they
have not permitted the industry’s risk dynamics to lead to significant
deterioration in their financial profiles.

I am not getting the following:

    While some of these firms were dealt a great hand as
    spin-offs from the John D. Rockefeller organization way back when, they
    have not permitted the industry’s risk dynamics to lead to significant
    deterioration in their financial profiles.

I tried to put it together by looking up single words and how they translate, but I am not getting the meaning of this sentence. What does it mean?

So when Exxon was created out of the Rockefeller company people expected the new oil company to be a good "idea", so they expected the company to be succesful. Why should this lead to a deterioration in the financial profiles of the companies in the oil industry?

I mean if Exxon would have been know as a bad company with weak chances in future it would have a high risk, so the risk in the oil industry would have increased and this would have deteriorated the financial profile of companies in the oil business?

The sentence begins with a "while". If it would be a "because" I would get it.

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The writer is emphasizing that these companies are successful because they are well run, as opposed to being successful because they started out with plentiful resources.

The writer is acknowledging a potential objection: that it is not the strength of the companies (presumably factors like business methods, organization and leadership) but that the companies were "dealt a great hand" that makes them successful today. The book refutes this by pointing out that the industry has "risk dynamics" that would "deteriorate" a weaker company's "financial profile." Maintaining the strong profile in the face of risk is presented as evidence of the companies' strength.

Consider this similarly structured sentence:

One point to note is that André Roussimoff is one of the largest professional athletes ever to star in a feature film. While Gheorghe Mureșan was taller than André Roussimoff, André did not weigh less.

And this one that uses "Because:"

One point to note is that André Roussimoff is one of the largest professional athletes ever to star in a feature film. Because Gheorghe Mureșan was taller than André Roussimoff, André did not weigh less.

The construction with "Because" does not make sense, because weighing more does not make one smaller. For reference, Mureșan was taller and Roussimoff was heavier.

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