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What part of speech is the word "of" in the phrase "made of"? Trying to review the word "of" I the command :"Go and make disciples of all nations". Please help

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    It's a preposition, as usual. It's frequently used to make intransitive verb phrases seem transitive, like make disciples, which already has an object, but can be extended as a fixed intransitive phrase (effectively meaning convert); to this the target of the conversion or disciplining -- all nations can be added with a preposition. Normally that preposition is of, because it's got less meaning than practically any other preposition. – John Lawler Oct 16 '14 at 23:10
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In your example, there is no such phrase as "make of" or "made of".  The prepositional phrase in question is "of all nations", which is perfectly ordinary and unremarkable.  Depending on dialect, "from all nations" or "out of all nations" may be close synonyms. 

The phrase "disciples of all nations" is also ordinary and unremarkable.  This is a noun phrase in which the leading noun is modified by the prepositional phrase.  One option is to consider this complete noun phrase to be the direct object of the verb "make".  Another option is to consider "disciples" as the direct object and "of all nations" as the object complement. 

I prefer the object complement option.  I see the same structure in "make disciples of all nations" as I do in "name the dog Spot" and "get him ready".  These imperatives are both transitive and causative.  The complements relate to their direct objects as a result of the action of their verbs. 

Regardless of which option you prefer, "of all nations" is a coherent prepositional phrase which, one way or another, modifies "disciples".  It contains the preposition "of" and the object "all nations".

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John Lawler made the following comment. I think it is worth converting into an answer.

It's a preposition, as usual. It's frequently used to make intransitive verb phrases seem transitive, like make disciples, which already has an object, but can be extended as a fixed intransitive phrase (effectively meaning convert); to this the target of the conversion or disciplining -- all nations can be added with a preposition. Normally that preposition is of, because it's got less meaning than practically any other preposition.

I have nothing to add. The answer seems adequate to me.

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