I'm trying to figure out how to phrase a question to know a person's current number in a position. For example:
Mr. X is the 15th prime minister of India.
What is the correct question to ask about Mr. X to receive an answer of "15th"?
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The formal way to ask this is to ask about the ordinality of the position. In this case, you'd ask:
What is the ordinality of Mr. X among prime ministers of India?
However, I don't know that this question would be understood by most native speakers (ordinality is not a very common word). If you were asking a native speaker, the informal, though not really "correct" way would be:
What number prime minister is Mr. X?
Generically, the What number [position] is [person]? would be understood by most native speakers, and give you the results you desire.