To what extent, if any, do lingo and jargon differ?
I’d use lingo to characterize a style of speaking, characterized by words both newly-minted and appropriated for a specific meaning. For example, using drag to mean boring or tedious, bread to mean money, or man as a form of address all contribute to the lingo of counterculture in the 60s.
Jargon refers to a technical vocabulary that is shorthand for complex or elaborate concepts and practices. In technology, for example, it’s often characterized by acronyms and other terms coined by inventors and innovators. In law, medical practice, and academic research, it’s a combination of terms and concepts owed to history that are often anchored to their language of origin.
For starters, lingo has racist and colonialist overtones, unlike jargon. Lingo is informal, unlike jargon. Basically, never use it unless you want to convey that you care nothing for the socially appropriate use of language, and possibly offend any speakers of the mode of speech you are labelling as "lingo".