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I ran into this question in an exam and could not figure out which option to choose and why! In its key, choice 2 is selected as the correct answer.

4- Mr. Hill decided to offer the position to Henry, ………….. .
1) having rejected his job offer by Bill
2) Bill having rejected his job offer
3) Bill rejecting his job offer
4) being rejected his job offer by Bill

why not choice 1 ?

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Choice 1 is an example of a dangling modifier. The clause having rejected his job offer by Bill is a modifying clause in which the verb having rejected is actually associated with the subject of the sentence, Mr. Hill, rather than with Bill as intended.

In choice 2, having rejected is correctly associated with Bill, as intended.

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All four options are stilted and awkward. At least Option 2 is a phrase containing a subject. Option 1 is ambiguous concerning who does the rejection. I would opt for:

Mr. Hill decided to offer the position to Henry, after Bill rejected the offer.

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