I have the following sentence:

"In other words, Rule 5 has a balancing test and the limiting factors, which restrict admissibility the same way that 6(a) & 6(b) do."

In this case, what should be the correct usage of the word "do"?

  • This the correct use. Use do if you use that. If you use as instead, don't use do. Sep 25, 2014 at 15:56
  • Right. I guess I'm confused as to whether it should be "do" or "does". Can you explain the verb tense usage?
    – franklin
    Sep 25, 2014 at 16:00
  • 2
    It should be do. The coordination of 6(a) & 6(b) means that the subject's plural. Sep 25, 2014 at 16:05

1 Answer 1


DO here is the dummy auxiliary verb. It is being used to stand in for restrict admissibility. Do here means do restrict admissibility. A technical term for this is that DO is being used to take code. There is no other auxiliary verb here which can take code, so the dummy auxiliary is being used. If we had a modal verb or other auxiliary, we could have used that instead. Compare:

  • which restrict admissibility the same way that (6a) & (6b) do.
  • which can restrict admissibility the same way that (6a) & (6b) can.
  • which have restricted admissibility the same way that (6a) & (6b) have.

The subject of this verb is the coordinated Noun Phase (6a) & (6b). Although the (6b) on its own would be singular, because there are two entities in the Subject, DO is agreeing with the plural subject. This is entirely correct.

Hope this is helpful!

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