Is there a single, succinct term in English that would describe the grouping of a chart/graph and a data table displayed together in one place?
There isn't a word that specifically refers to the combination you mentioned. You can probably get by with referring to it simply as a chart, but "figure" would be more appropriate in academic writing. "Infographics" may include charts and data tables, but the word itself refers to the final graphic presentation (usually pretty fancy) and not the grouping of different information representations.
Figure: "graphs, diagrams or illustrations/images" (Source: Birmingham City University)
Infographic: "graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present complex information quickly and clearly" (Source: Wikipedia)