It seems that the known literary device is precisely as used here with the conjunction "as": "as x, as he is y…" The phrasing can be also used in a negative way: "as greedy as he is deceitful," or "as vindictive as he is cowardly…"
You might find it helpful to read about correlative conjunctions here: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm
"neither… nor…" and "both… and…" can be used to similar effect: "he is neither brave nor honest" or "he is both vigilant and aggressive" are examples I just made up. There are endless possibilities for enhancing both compliments and insults using successive clauses.
I'm not quite sure I understand the rest of the question. If you mean duplicating the effect of this contrast on a larger scale, that is over paragraphs, rather than in a single sentence, that is certainly done often. In fact, many short stories and novels accumulate through a succession of descriptive sketches that either reinforce one another or create unexpected surprises of contrast. I can't think of a word for this particular style of writing. I'm sure one can be found!