In project management, a project is divided into discrete tasks; as ODO defines it, a task is simply
A piece of work to be done or undertaken
This is especially suitable if your organization uses task-based billing, in which services are standardized and prices are charged according to a menu. This turns up in software development, some legal and healthcare services, and some shop work. My auto shop uses a variant in which standard tasks are mapped to traditional worker-hours, e.g. a tire repair is charged at 0.25 hours regardless of whether it actually takes 0.2 hours or 0.75 hours to complete.
Task may not always be suitable; in everyday use it connotes a relatively small-scale or unsophisticated activity, especially one assigned by someone else. On the other hand, task is the term the U.S. federal government uses to describe individual projects when procuring services under certain contracting arrangements. A task order might call for a contractor to replace all the smoke detectors on a military base, or to ship 2500 tons of potatoes from eight sources to a distribution center for disaster relief, or other complex assignments.
As Dan Bron notes, the more traditional method of charging for labor is by the billable hour, with rates varying by the level of experience and expertise but more skilled or experienced workers assumed to be more productive than their less expensive colleagues. Work activity on a particular project might be, besides task, described as a job or a gig, or something specific to the nature of the work and the industry involved: two repairs, five trips, eight installations, three loads, and so on.