There is "length", "width", "height", "depth", etc but these words are all relative in respect to the current viewer. The width for one person could be the depth for another person (who is at a 90 degree difference).
There is also "latitude" and "longitude", which describes position in terms of cardinal direction. This is close, but I'm wondering if there are words for describing the length of something in respect to a cardinal axis (north/south and east/west). Essentially "east-west-length" and "north-south-length".
I've had no luck with finding this using search engines. =(