The terms endophora and exophora are relevant to the question asked in the title,
What is the word for adjectives like ‘correct’ which may not provide complete meaning without previous sentence?
Of exophora, Wikipedia says
In linguistic pragmatics, exophora is reference to something extralinguistic, i.e. not in the same text, and contrasts with endophora. Exophora can be deictic, in which special words or grammatical markings are used to make reference to something in the context of the utterance or speaker. For example, pronouns are often exophoric, with words such as "this", "that", "here", "there", as in that chair over there is John's said while indicating the direction of the chair referred to.
Of endophora, Wikipedia says
Endophora is an expression that refers to something in the same text.
For example, in the sentences "I saw Sally yesterday. She was lying on the beach", "she" is an endophoric expression because it refers to something already mentioned in the text, i.e. "Sally".
By contrast, "She was lying on the beach," if it appeared by itself, has an exophoric expression; "she" refers to something that the reader is not told about. That is to say, there is not enough information in the text to independently determine to whom "she" refers. It can refer to someone the speaker assumes his audience has prior knowledge of or it can refer to a person he is showing to his listeners. Without further information, in other words, there is no way of knowing the exact meaning of an exophoric term.
In short, an adjective that depends for meaning on a previous sentence is used exophorically.
Also note the word deictic in the explanation of exophora. Deictic means “Of or pertaining to deixis; to a word whose meaning is dependent on context”. Deixis means “(linguistics) A reference within a sentence that relies on the context being known to interpret correctly”.