In its Entertainment TV section, Time magazine (August 29) reports that Sara Palin has launched her own Internet Television network. It says;

Palin’s not the first candidate to lose an election and then embrace the media. Aug. 1 marks the ninth anniversary of the launch of Current TV, Al Gore’s since-folded television network, which Al Jazeera bought last year.

I was attracted to the word, “since-folded,” and I thought it convenient word to be used in many other ways, like “since-folded shop/hospital/library/hotel/company/program,” and so on.

So I checked OED, CED, and Merriam-Webster English Dictionary to make certain. None of them carries “since-folded,” nor does Google Ngram.

How does "since-folded" differ from "long-folded (closed/non-operating)"?

Is “since-folded” an 'accustomed' English word, or just one-off coinage of the article author, P.Nash Jenkins?

  • 2
    I wouldn't take that usage as indicative of the primary "productive" version. Most people would probably go with now-folded, which applies in far more contexts. The only justification for using since- instead of now- is when you want to call attention to the event itself (the folding, in this case). In most cases even a past tense verb like that is primarily indicating the current state, and therefore it would more naturally be a now-closed network, not a since-closed one. Jul 28, 2014 at 23:46
  • 1
    @FumbleFingers Not sure I think that distinction is relevant. My problem is with 'folded'. I suffer the disadvantage of having been an accountant, and the word's a bit too colloquial for me. I might speak of a now-closed, or since-closed, operation. A 'wound-up' company also has a definite legal meaning. But there is probably nothing terribly wrong with 'folded' - just that my preference would be elsewhere.
    – WS2
    Jul 29, 2014 at 0:01
  • @WS2: Well, I'm not wild about folded myself, which is why I switched to closed (defunct isn't bad either). But I think the distinction is relevant if you consider other adjectival past tenses that might be used in similar ways. If I speak of a since-arrested thief it's even possible that by the time of speaking he might have been tried, convicted, served his time, and be out on parole. But if I say a now-arrested thief you can be pretty certain he's somewhere between having been arrested and having been convicted (because I'm describing his current state). Jul 29, 2014 at 0:12
  • 1
    Hey Yoichi -- it's a very-obvious combination in English. it's one of those weird things that is probably not common (it would be hard to find examples of it, I bet) but it's absolutely obvious and clear to any English speaker. "since-blah" is common and as Fumble explains "blah-closed" etc are all common.
    – Fattie
    Jul 29, 2014 at 10:45
  • WS and Fumble - I'm surprised you're surprised by "folded". it's the usual slightly-pejorative choice in tabloid-esque writing, since it makes the company sound more like a flop or failure. (Yoichi - I'm sure you could find humorous usages like "since-fucked-up" or "since-screwed-the-pooch" .. company. You'd probably also see "since-exploded" "since-evaporated" and so on.)
    – Fattie
    Jul 29, 2014 at 10:47

3 Answers 3


That is a combination of adverb describing a participial-adjective.

The following are examples of adjectives derived from verbs, hence participle+adjective.

Past completed/perfected participles

  • painted door
  • discarded food
  • targeted audience
  • folded business.

Present progressing participles

  • running man
  • traveling salesman
  • closing sale
  • folding chair

We could attach another adjective to describe how the fore-front adjective describes its noun.

  • tall painted door
  • smelly discarded food
  • handsome traveling salesman.

OTOH, we could attach an adverb to describe how an adjective achieved its state

  • quickly painted door
  • unscrupulously discarded food
  • fast-traveling salesman
  • fast-moving van
  • duly-noted heroism

Therefore, we could also use conjunctive adverbs to describe the adjective's achieving its state

  • thus discarded food
  • since folded business
  • also-included reference letter
  • hence-unrequited love
  • thence-unrequited love
  • likewise receded tumour
  • otherwise-unnoticed genius
  • she was then-unmarried Drew Barrymore
  • the instead-of untainted replacement
  • next-completed action item (vs next completed-action-item)
  • she spilled the still-brewing tea.

Conjunctive adverb vs conjunctive adjective

  • your nonetheless-perfected record should not be ruined
  • your nonetheless-healthy lungs should not be subjected to stress anyway .

I did not expect this to be chosen the answer. I wrote this answer purely to remind (and educate those who did not know) of the grammatical elements of the situation.

My since-chosen answer obliges me to explain the difference between since-defunct vs now-defunct, by pointing out what it means to be a conjunctive adverb/adjective.

A conjunction connects two predicates. Therefore, a conjunctive adverb connects the action of the current new story to the effects of actions that took place in an existing story.

It is meaningless to have the conjunction in the story:

My since-reduced role in the company has been free from the burdens of responsibility

Unless it is preceded or followed by the likes of

having resigned as chair of the board

There is difference between jail time and walking free to say

My now-reduced role would not allow me the privilege of such decisions


My since-reduced role would not allow me the privilege of such decisions

When asked by the prosecutor in court

Did you over-see the release of toxic waste into the river after your resignation from the chair of the board?

Further examples

  • Person 1: Prince Charming bent to kiss Snow White.
    Person 2: Whereas the thus-broken spell continued to haunt her memories.

  • P1: Don't you know the messiah has come to save the world?
    P2: But I'm afraid, such hence-perceived superstition removes from men their responsibility to save the planet from climate disaster.

  • Though meaning are all obvious, I feel the words of [adverb+noun compound] you quoted such as “since-folded,” “hence-unrequited love,” “hence-unrequited love” are somewhat alien in contrast to the [adjective+noun] compound such as “tall painted door,” “handsome traveling salesman,” “fast-moving van,” which are familiar to me. I don’t know why. Jul 29, 2014 at 2:22
  • [[adverb+adjective]+noun] vs [adjective + [adjective+noun]] Jul 29, 2014 at 2:48
  • In the category under OTOH, I am not sure why you hyphenated three of them, but not the other two. And the reason that a fast-travelling salesman gets hyphenated, whilst a handsome travelling salesman doesn't, is simply that fast describes travelling, but handsome describes salesman.
    – WS2
    Jul 29, 2014 at 7:12
  • Hyphenating a pair of words is the way to increase the proximity of those two words above other neighbouring words. You could always hyphenate to ensure the proximity is obvious. But hyphenation is a strategy not a rule, so that if the proximity is understood without hyphenation, you don't need to hyphenate. Hyphenation is a strategy not a rule. Jul 29, 2014 at 8:20
  • I feel this answer completely misses the point. "since-blah" is a common form, it's that simple. it's a bit of journalese, if you will. sure, everyone realises what speech parts they are.
    – Fattie
    Jul 29, 2014 at 10:51

Here "since-folded" means "having folded since some previously mentioned event" not just "having folded previously". In this case, "Aug. 1 marks the ninth anniversary of the launch of Current TV, Al Gore’s since-folded television network, which Al Jazeera bought last year" could have been written as "Aug. 1 marks the ninth anniversary of the launch of Current TV, Al Gore's television network which has since folded, and which Al Jazeera bought last year". Obviously my version is more awkward, which is why it was published as written.

In any case, this is just an example of a compound attributive modifier ("since" + "folded"), which is hyphenated by the normal rules for compound modifiers used attributively. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compound_modifier

  • 1
    @YoichiOishi - You can use the same construction with many other past participles/adjectives, e.g. "Martin stared at the faded fascia board of the long-since-defunct general store". I'd say it appears more in print than in speech, however, so it's best used sparingly.
    – Erik Kowal
    Jul 28, 2014 at 23:42
  • 1
    @Erik: I think you can only really shoehorn since alongside defunct when you also stick long on the front. Most people would just use now-defunct. Jul 28, 2014 at 23:49
  • @FumbleFingers - Agreed. I chose a poor example.
    – Erik Kowal
    Jul 29, 2014 at 0:47
  • @Erik: In some ways it's a good example, because it forces us to wonder what it is about the bare since-defunct that we don't like. Which imho is that since- focusses on a past event, but defunct is more a state than an event. Yet when we switch to long-since, it suddenly becomes okay, because that version means it's been in that state for a long time. Any specific "event" that might have caused it to enter that state is only peripherally alluded to. Jul 29, 2014 at 1:13
  • @FumbleFingers - It's strange, isn't it, that since-defunct strikes a false note, whereas since-abandoned in the same context sounds OK?
    – Erik Kowal
    Jul 29, 2014 at 1:48

The since is an interesting reference to a time span outside of what is described:

... launch of Current TV, Al Gore’s since-folded television network ...
the since refers to the time span between what is described in the sentence, and the time of writing:

I would expand the sentence to
... launch of "Current TV", Al Gore’s television network, which folded since that time, ...
So the TV station closed down, but not at the time we're writing about, but between then, and now, when we are describing it.
All that is a side note, on a meta level.

I'll compare related words that came up, assuming the same context of the sentence where "since-folded" was used.
I use "then" for the time where the events occurred that are described in the original context sentence, "ninth anniversary of the launch of Current TV", and "now" for the time of writing the sentence.

The meaning of "since-folded" is about the same as "folded in the meantime", that is, folded between then, and now.

It is different from "long-folded": folded before now, even long before, but - only implicitly - not before then.

It is also different from "now-defunct": defunct before now, with no relation to then.

  • "folded in the meantime" also available
    – Fattie
    Jul 29, 2014 at 10:49
  • @JoeBlow yes, that matches closely. I'll compare it with some of the other words proposed. Jul 29, 2014 at 10:55

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.