e.g. Are you awake? (to somebody who appears to be asleep, but for which any given reply will confirm wakefulness)
The book "The Syntactic Phenomena of English" (By James D. McCawley) mentions this type of question under alternative question type but also adds that it is a yes-no question with an exception.
But more explicitly, the question is described as "the act of answering provides the answer".
But you can treat this question as any closed-ended question also because in general, the answer is limited to "yes" or "no". The answer "no" could be sarcastic and could simply mean "yes". If there is no answer (or if there is a sleepy answer), it means the person is asleep, then you might have the desired information as well.
It's a fallacy called false dilemma.