Currently I am reading a book titled Configurations of culture growth by the American anthropologist Alfred Louis Kroeber. Part of his book consists of tables that list eminent people from all fields of human activity (science, literature, drama, painting, sculpture, ...).

Next to some of the names are abbreviations like "b." (born), "d." (died), "r." (reigned) and "ca." (circa).

But there are two abbreviations whose meanings are unknown to me, namely "fl." and "seq.". Do you know what they mean?

Here is an excerpt from Google Books:

Page 464 of Configurations of Culture Growth. Relevant excerpt: "...Princess Si-Kiün, fl. ca. 100... Yang Ti, Sui emperor, r. 605 seq."

  • I've never encountered shortcut in this sense before, and was puzzled from the title as to what the question might be about.
    – Colin Fine
    Commented Jul 19, 2014 at 9:16
  • @ColinFine - You are right. The OP really means abbreviation. I have edited the question to fix both that and some other items which require attention.
    – Erik Kowal
    Commented Jul 19, 2014 at 9:23
  • In my mother language "shortcut" and "abbreviation" are the same words. Thanks for pointing to correct phrase. Commented Jul 19, 2014 at 9:27
  • 1
  • @ErikKowal Would the title not better be 'Latin abbreviations,' maybe?
    – Kris
    Commented Jul 19, 2014 at 10:54

1 Answer 1


Unfortunately, the page you linked to is inaccessible to me. However, I believe I can still answer your question. Fl. is the abbreviation of flourished (or the Latin equivalent, floruit).

The reference is to the active years of the person next to whose name the abbreviation appears. For example, if you open a history book, and next to the reproduction of a painted portrait on one of its pages you see a caption that reads

Joe Blow (fl. ca. 1538-1585)

it means that the portrait is of Joe Blow, who is believed to have been actively engaged in the occupation he is famous for between approximately 1538 and 1585.


The poster has included a screenshot of the relevant page, and has also added a question about the meaning of seq.

Seq. is an abbreviation of the Latin sequens, meaning approximately 'the following one'. It occurs next to the name of the emperor Yang Ti:

Yang Ti, Sui emperor, r. 605 seq.

In combination with the r. signifying 'reigned', it means that the emperor Yang Ti reigned from the year 605 onwards, but it has not been possible to specify the last year of his reign (presumably because there is no clear record available to indicate when it ended).

  • It is usually used when no more precise dates are known.
    – Colin Fine
    Commented Jul 19, 2014 at 9:15
  • I edited my original post and added screenshot from book. I also edited my question and added another shortcut "seq." used in group of words like "Yang Ti, Sui emperor, r. 605 seq." Commented Jul 19, 2014 at 9:24
  • Always try to cite the sources.
    – Kris
    Commented Jul 19, 2014 at 10:47
  • As a rule of thumb, fl. traditionally signifies the date at which the person was about forty years of age. Commented Jul 19, 2014 at 15:28
  • @BrianDonovan, can you provide some kind of citation for this, or at least an example? It seems implausible when you think of someone like Mozart, who only lived for 35 years.
    – Henry74
    Commented Jul 19, 2014 at 19:59

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