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I am confused if I should use a comma in the following series? Note that there is no "and" in the series, and all the three adjectives, i.e., powerful, high-throughput and low-complexity are modifying the word "decoder".

This requires a powerful high-throughput low-complexity soft-output decoder for LDPC codes.

or

This requires a powerful, high-throughput, low-complexity, soft-output decoder for LDPC codes.

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I would use every comma except the last one in your second example. 'Soft output decoder' can essentially be treated as a single term. You could write "I'm looking for a powerful soft output decoder", the same could be done with any of the three adjectives. Each of the three adjectival terms should be separated by a comma, but the list of adjectives doesn't need to be separated from the term they are modifying.

I think this would be best:

This requires a powerful, high-throughput, low-complexity soft-output decoder for LDPC codes.

If you want to treat soft-output as a 4th modifier for decoder then I think your second example is correct, but I feel like that would be non conventional.

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Both are correct, the second one with the commas 'reads' better.

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Apologies if this misses the point of the question but maybe the sentence could be restructured to avoid the problem entirely?

"For LDPC codes, a decoder that is powerful, high-throughput, low-complexity and soft-output is required."

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