Which is correct: "he has a Napoleon complex" or "he has a Napoleonic complex"?
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The right term is Napoleon complex.
Napoleon complex, or "short man syndrome",
is a pejorative slang term describing a type of psychological phenomenon which is said to exist in people, usually men, of short stature. It is characterized by overly-aggressive or domineering social behaviour, and carries the implication that such behaviour is compensatory for the subjects' stature. The term is also used more generally to describe people who are driven by a perceived handicap to overcompensate in other aspects of their lives. Other names for the term include Napoleon syndrome and Short Man syndrome.
(Historical Terms) relating to or characteristic of Napoleon I or his era, like " The Napoleonic wars".