A riddle for the weekend.

If p stands for one page, pp stand for a range of pages, which one should I use in a footnote with J. Jones, page 21 and other pages? I.e. do I write pp. 21 and further or p. 21 and further?

  • 'p21ff' conveys 'page 21 and following (unenumerated) pages'. – Nigel J Apr 18 '18 at 22:08

If you're going to use the initial page, and not specify the other pages, I'd use a single p; if you're going to specify all of the pages, I'd use the doubled pp. So, "p. 21 and following", but "pp. 21, 23-24, 27, 29."

I would discourage the use of "further" in a footnote in favor of "following", as "further" has a connotation of distance, while "following" has a connotation of sequence. But since it is fairly common to use the Latin terms ibid and op. cit. in footnotes, I prefer the Latin "et seq." in place of following. YMMV.

  • I've always thought "further" can be used figuratively, and "farther" carries the connotation of distance. – jules Jun 20 '14 at 10:41
  • 1
    Yes, I concede that "further" can be used figuratively, which is why I wrote "I would discourage..." instead of "Do not use...". But I think of such things in terms of how the average reader will be affected, and I tend to think that for too many readers, "further" may cause a momentary, and perhaps imperceptible distraction that "following" and "et seq." do not evoke. Or, to put it into consumer goods terms, "further / farther" is good; "following" is better, and et seq. is best. – brasshat Jun 20 '14 at 10:50
  • I agree with all that, would just add that I'd consider an alternative to "p. 21 and following" which is "from p. 21". – Rupe Jun 20 '14 at 11:28

If you insist on being thus vague with a page reference, the usual abbreviation would be “pp. 21ff.” Per MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd ed., § 8.4, p. 273:

[f., ff.] — and the following page(s) or line(s) (avoided in favor of specific page or line numbers)

“et seq.” and “et seqq.” are likewise bracketed as “no longer recommended” in the same list.

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