As everyone here has said, this is a very broad question that would better be addressed in a literary criticism forum. There are actually three words derived from poesis that need addressing:
We can start with "poem," as that's the easiest word to define [this is sarcasm, by the way]. A poem is a kind of literary work. Poems are usually distinguished from prose works by being written in meter or in some other kind of versification (by versification I mean here simply "lines" - for instance, in "free verse," rather than meter, lines are determined by some other attribute of the language - often line endings are determined by natural pauses). It is usual for the tone and register of a poem to be elevated in some way from the natural rhythms and language of prose. In many languages, there are also "prose poems," which are literary works which mimic the structure (and possibly tone) of poems but are written without any versification.
The term "poetry" is used both for the genre to which individual poems belong and for the vehicle of poetic expression (tone, register, meter, etc.).
The term "poetics" is used both for the methods used to write poetry and for the study of those methods.