Two related questions here:
Is it proper to use the construct, “Administrative components are autonomous of/from the front-end components”?
If it is proper, which of these two prepositions works better?
This word is best used in an absolute sense, i.e. without specifying what the autonomous entity would depend on if it weren't autonomous. If you need a contrast, use "independent of" ("of" is better than "from"), as Nicholas recommends.
The word "autonomous" comes from Greek autos, "own, self", and nomos, "law". It means "having one's own laws": the fact that you cannot easily add whatever is opposed to "one's own laws" to this phrase may serve to illustrate why "autonomous" is traditionally used without modifiers, or so I believe.
Use independent of / from the front-end components
Or they are autonomous in respect to the the front-end components
Would it not be better to say 'work independently of...' ?
I don't think autonomous can be used like this at all. You would have to say "is autonomous relative to the front-end components" or "in relation to the front-end components".