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What is the term for using an adjective in the place of a noun?

It seems to come up a lot in fantasy fiction, generally used as a proper noun to describe a group ("the Twisted", "the Hunted"), but it also comes up in everyday use ("the mentally ill").

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    The term substantive adjective may be what you are looking for. – Anonym Jun 10 '14 at 21:13
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Grammatically, Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech and Svartvik (1985) describe this as adjectives functioning as heads of noun phrases' (7.23—7.26, pp 421—424).

Rhetorically, this is a combination of ellipsis (the omission of a word or phrase which is easily understood in context) and metonymy (referring to something or someone by one of its/their attributes).

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