1 I did good on the test.
I suppose this is heard in American English. About.com has a comment about this sentence. They say "good" is incorrect.
I'm no native speaker and my knowledge of AmE is limited. So I can't say how often sentence 1 is heard and by what kind of speakers. I would say it is a sloppy and uneducated way of speech. But maybe one has to consider it as an Americanism bound to special regions or age groups or to special classes. A sociolect as "my bad"?
By the way, "good" in 1 is not a predicative adjective. Such adjectives are used after linking verbs as to be/to become/to remain etc.
"good" in 1 is a wrongly used adjective where an adverb would be correct.