In the following, which is better to write between two sentences: ". Also" or ", and also" :

Another drawback in the convenient setting is that operational vector fields do not have integral curves. Also, for kinematic vector fields integral curves do not need to exist locally, and if they exist they may not be unique for a given initial value.

Are there any grammatical errors?

  • 1
    Probably making it a separate sentence, the way you have it, is clearest. If you link the sentences together with and, you defeat the purpose of separating them with also. Also, one thing -- "convenient setting" is an unusual term; is it transcribed from "convenience setting", or is it a special term in this variety of analysis? – John Lawler May 18 '14 at 19:41
  • 1
    Thanks, Yes, it is a special term. One more question. Is it right to write "And also" in the beginning of the sentence, for example in the mentioned sentences. – InGeometry May 18 '14 at 19:53
  • "Right" is not the correct word; it's grammatical. But the And adds nothing at the beginning of a sentence, since also already means and, and adds other meaning. Normally and also is used to mark nouns at the end of a list, rather than clauses. And independent sentences are even less likely. – John Lawler May 18 '14 at 19:59
  • And also is like and and or also also. It might not be strictly incorrect, but it's seldom useful. – Drew Jun 17 '14 at 23:15

I would not recommend sentences starting with also, on technical documents and academic theses. Similarly, I avoid using going to in such situations, especially a phrase like "I am going to go", which sounds terribly cheesy. They are colloquialisms, which may annoy the academic/intellectual reader.

Depending on the intended logic of the sentence, also could be replaced by

  • furthermore
  • on the other hand
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • similarly
  • in addition
  • additionally
  • perhaps
  • undoubtedly
  • however
  • regardless

Or (please don't mind the colloquialism), use the following mouthfuls

  • due-to/on/after further consideration
  • further consideration suggests/indicates that
  • deeper review indicates that
  • in/on/with further consideration
  • with all due consideration
  • I would further suggest that
  • not forgetting/ignoring (the fact) that
  • on further analysis
  • I also wish to remind/emphasize that
  • notwithstanding/despite/in-spite-of/despite previous/other evidence/consideration

Among words that should only be used to begin a sentence colloquially are

  • and
  • or
  • also
  • plus
  • maybe

When you start a sentence with And also, you commit double cheesiness, plus incurring grammar girl's wrath against redundancy.

Redundancy is used in some languages to establish emphasis. For the sake of clarity, in technical usage in any language, where we need to express as much as possible in as few words as possible, it is best to avoid redundancy and obfuscating structures.

  • Thanks, It was helpful. One more question. If we want to give more weight to the thought expressed like showing surprise Can we use "and" at a beginning a sentence in formal texts? – InGeometry May 18 '14 at 21:03
  • Using and to begin a formal sentence would effectively reduce its weight than increasing it. Using more formal words or phrases reduces the risk of a phrase being perceived as less important due to the insufficient effort to form a more proper sentence. – Blessed Geek May 18 '14 at 21:16
  • 2
    I see you don't add authoritative support for any of the above (though I would go with most of it). However, in a previous thread, Shoe comments that when it comes to starting a sentence with 'also' in a formal register, not all would consider an act of cheesiness was being committed: As noted by other commenters, some writers prefer to avoid "Also, .. " in formal writing. I think it's acceptable. – Edwin Ashworth May 18 '14 at 21:42
  • "also" means "on the other hand" and "perhaps"? – Peter Shor Jun 17 '14 at 21:03

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