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I would like to know how to refer to the sentance structure that is used in formal contexts, when "through which", "for whom" etc. are typically used. Are these non-defining relative pronouns?

Sometimes they can can be combined:

implicates a world amid and with which it proceeds

And often they make sentences more confusing:

The understandings of action through which doings and sayings are linked in practices encompass the understandings of action against the background of which doings and sayings constitute specific actions.

Any ideas?

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Here is an article about relative clauses that addresses this particular construction:

4. Giving additional information

We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses, which tell us more about people and things....

We use who, whom, whose, and which (but not that) in relative clauses to tell us more about a person or thing....

as object of a preposition:

He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, who he had read about in the newspaper. That’s the programme which we listened to last night.

  • We sometimes use whom instead of who:

He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, whom he had read about in the newspaper.

  • The preposition sometimes comes in front of the relative pronoun whom or which:

He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, about whom he had read in the newspaper. That’s the programme to which we listened last night.

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