In my native language there exists a phrase Injured snake
A wounded snake is assumed to be more vigorous/dangerous.
Are there any similar phrase/idiom/proverb in English?
The phrase like a cornered rat has a similar meaning, though the rat is trapped rather than injured, the idea that a desperate animal is particularly dangerous still applies.
"like a wounded animal" is quite common actually. Usually used in sports when a defeated team strikes back like a wounded animal.
Tom Watson's United States team will go into the 2014 Ryder Cup in Scotland "like a wounded animal" after snatching defeat from the jaws of victory in Illinois two years ago, said Europe captain Paul McGinley.
“At London Irish we lost ten games in all competitions but a desperate team is a dangerous team. It’s like a wounded animal, they’re fighting for their last breath.
Emotions have a voice; when they're wounded, they may react like a wounded animal. Wounded animals can be quite dangerous, and so can wounded emotions if they're followed.
The idiom Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned applies