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Question 1: In the following, is this a demonstrative determiner:

I will go to the store this week.

Question 2: If so, then what class is next in the following:

I will go to the store next week.

Question 3: It seems that both serve the same grammatical syntax and function here; are they therefore classified the same? (If not, why not?)

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    This, that, these, those are demonstrative. Next is originally a locative (the superlative in nigh, near, next), but is frequently used metaphorically of time in sequence of events (The next speaker is Ms. Hobbs). Like all superlatives, and all demonstratives, it's definite, so there's lots of meaning overlap, but the demonstrative pronouns have their own paradigm and relate to other definite TH-words like the, thence, thither, thus, then, and there. – John Lawler Apr 18 '14 at 19:51
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    This is not an adjective but a determiner. Next is an adjective and can co-occur with determiners. They're both definite. They both quantify and determine, but they don't do it the same way. You can't expect a great deal from syntactic category labels; they're rarely specific enough to be useful in every case. – John Lawler Apr 18 '14 at 20:09
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    @John Lawler Calling 'next' an adjective certainly messes up my concepts of adjectives as words saying something further about the intrinsic nature of the noun's referent, and of words 'serv[ing] to express the reference of th[e] noun or noun phrase in the [relevant] context' (Wikipedia) being determiners. I know you weight syntactic and perhaps morphological diagnostics more than I like to. – Edwin Ashworth Apr 18 '14 at 22:18
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    @EdwinAshworth: Well, it's not a typical adjective, that's for sure. More like an adjective with superpowers, like worth, which (if it is an adjective) is a transitive adjective, because it can come with a measure phrase, like worth $300. But it's not likely that any semantic definition of a syntactic phenomenon will survive in any case, since they're backwards; it's true that persons, places, and things are always represented by nouns, but it's false that nouns always represent persons, places, and things. Structure determines structural classes, meaning determines semantic classes. – John Lawler Apr 19 '14 at 13:57
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    The authors of the Longman Grammar call it, along with same and other, a ‘semi-determiner’. – Barrie England Apr 23 '14 at 16:45
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Demonstrative determiner is not exactly a syntactic category; determiner is a syntactic category, but demonstrative is basically an etymological+semantic grouping consisting of this, that, these, and those.

So although next is a determiner in some cases, it is never a "demonstrative determiner".

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As John Lawler notes in the comments:

This, that, these, those are demonstrative. Next is originally a locative (the superlative in nigh, near, next), but is frequently used metaphorically of time in sequence of events (The next speaker is Ms. Hobbs). Like all superlatives, and all demonstratives, it's definite, so there's lots of meaning overlap, but the demonstrative pronouns have their own paradigm and relate to other definite TH-words like the, thence, thither, thus, then, and there.

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This is a self-answer. The various answers given don't seem to be complete. The best I can tell regarding the answer of this is "it's a bit complicated" and I refer the interested reader to look at the main comments for discussion. Particularly, John Lawler's comment:

You can't expect a great deal from syntactic category labels; they're rarely specific enough to be useful in every case.

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