I want to start the conclusion of my essay by using

So, to sum up …
To sum it up, …

Do you think they are formal and stylish?

  • This question may be simple, and asking for writing advice BUT it is also very useful to visitors. At least this is not about proofreading an essay. There are also other ways to begin the conclusion of an essay, which should be mentioned in answers.
    – Mari-Lou A
    May 9, 2017 at 10:01

3 Answers 3


The first is right, the second sounds awkward.

Formal, yes. Stylish, no. Pretty standard really, which is good, because you don't necessarily want to be fancy here. It's what you say next that will count.

You could also say In conclusion or To conclude or As we have seen or As I have shown or In discussing these matters what has emerged is...


It is formal, but I would not consider it stylish. I try to avoid using phrases such as "In conclusion", "To wrap it all up", or anything similar. I prefer to reiterate the thesis and the main points of the paper, then have a strong finishing sentence.


I' d use to conclude; to sum up sounds a bit informal to me, though correct.

  • Asghar, are you looking to use a peroration style? Peroration n. the concluding part of a speech, forcefully summing up what has been said. * * * noun 1. a flowery and highly rhetorical oration useful_english.enacademic.com/99654/peroration
    – Third News
    Apr 14, 2014 at 17:10

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