Is there a noun that groups these five objects, in the same way that the term "noun" describes "apple", "bottle", "curtain" and "procrastination". Would you just call them sentence components? Note that I'm not asking about what you'd call the words themselves, but how you describe their function in a sentence, in the same way that you describe a group of words predicated around one part of speech as a "phrase".
According to Bablenet, these are called clause elements:
These are well worth learning about, as you will certainly want to use them to explain the syntax of language data you are studying in exams or investigations. If you are not able to describe or identify clause types, it is usually acceptable and always helpful to consider how these elements work together. You may use them to explain how sentences work, also. They are: subject (S), object (O), verb (V), complement (C), adverbial (A)
Noun, verb, pronoun, adjective, adverb, etc are parts of speech. Subject, object, complement, adverbial, etc are functions.
I am not sure whether I understand your question. The grammar terms you have in your head line are parts of a sentence, with the exception of "verb". Verb is a word class, but it is often also used in analysing the parts of a sentence.
You can call these "things" parts of a sentence, elements of a sentence or components of a sentence, it is all the same. I'm not quite sure, but I think the linguistic term constituents is also used for parts of a sentence, but it is not a term of traditional grammar.
Discussion of the term verb.
As verb is primarily a word class (often also called "parts of speech", rather a vague term) one should have an unambiguous term for verb as part of the sentence. But there is not yet an accepted term. I often use VE (verbal element).
I think they all could be called phrases.
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy. --Wikipedia