When we write academic paper, can we use "also"? If it is a bit informal, is it ok to use "likewise" instead of "also"? Or, are there any possible expression in such situation?

  • 2
    Have you checked in a dictionary for register? Try eg 'daft' first to see how Macmillan flag for informality. – Edwin Ashworth Apr 7 '14 at 9:15
  • Thanks. I found likewise "formal" in Macmillan:) What does the number of stars mean in Macmillan dictionary? – Doctora Apr 7 '14 at 9:52
  • I didn't know, but I suspected it was a 'frequency of use' measure. It's described here. – Edwin Ashworth Apr 7 '14 at 13:21
  • Go thou and do likewise. – tchrist Apr 7 '14 at 13:32

You can certainly use "likewise" anywhere it fits and there is no reason why you can't also use the word "also" in an academic paper. I personally tend to use "also" only when necessary but sure, you can do it.

also (adverb)

  • in addition
  • in a similar way

likewise (adverb)

  • in the same way
  • in addition

They aren't exactly synonymous but they can often be used in the same places.


I encountered phrases like "XXX also possible" in context of alternative ways of signing or wrighting something in academic books many times. So I don't think, there are any reasons for worrying. Besides, as for me, "likewise" is more comparative than "also", that is shows variations and alternatives of using something. It's about slight difference, you can't understand. In russian there is union "также" and adverb + particle "так же", so I match "also" with simple union and "likewise" with adverb + particle.

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