An excerpt from the lyrics for a song called "Mountains of Makkah" sung by Zain Bhikha

Oh Mountains of Makkah, Bear witness that I
To the oneness of Allah do I testify
For all that He’s given me, how can I deny
My purpose in life should be only to cry:

I can't understand why there are two I's in that sentence. Of course, we need that first I as the subject for the sentence, but the second I just seems out of place to me.

2 Answers 2


Songs take liberties; there are not rules to govern word usage, except that it makes sense to the composer of the song.

The extra I is used to emphasize the personal nature of the testimony, as well as to provide the word needed to rhyme with testify and the extra syllable to keep the meter intact.

Oh Moun' / tains of Mak' / kah Bear wit' / ness that I' /
To the one' / ness of Al' / lah do I' / tes ti fy


  • 1
    And the second line could have been do now testify which would be metrical and grammatical.
    – Andrew Leach
    Commented Apr 6, 2014 at 22:20

The extra "I" is needed to support the metre. Without it, the second line is one beat short.

It's no worse than Paul McCartney's "this world in which we live in".

  • That line always struck me as the worst part of "Live And Let Die" (otherwise the best Bond theme). Commented Apr 6, 2014 at 21:02

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