That is, an event which has some positive (possibly infinite) duration.
In the app/programming world we refer to these as programs. An event has a duration. It doesn't have to be instantaneous or quick but it has a duration. When an event gets to a certain amount of time people no longer think of it as an event. I have done UI group tests and this seems to range from 2-3 days to a few weeks depending on context.
For events that are longer or that are really compromised of many natural sub-events we usually use the term program.
noun: programme; plural noun: programmes; noun: program; plural noun: programs
1. a planned series of future events, items, or performances.
Very interesting linguistic implications from this question! Because discourse is implicitly assumed to unfold sequentially instead of instantaneously (imagine how confusing that would be), communicating that an event unfolds not sequentially but not instantaneously likely has to be done grammatically, rather than lexically. So there is probably not a common single word for this textual signal that won't sound weird. For this reason you probably have to hack it yourself with tense, prepositions, etc.
That aside, I feel like hypothetically, the answer would be the transitive form of 'time', for example:
"with computers, arithmetic times, even if it feel instantaneous. "
Not hypothetically, my answer is something like:
'take(s) time (to)'
or something else that works best with the context.
Some example sentences:
Light travels instantaneously and I travel over time.
Light travels instantaneously and I travel with time.
I travel in time and light travels instantaneously.
I take time to travel and light travels instantaneously.
Traveling takes time but light travels instantaneously.