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I was wondering if there was any word or terminology for any such literary device that uses this effect.

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It sounds like the literary device term you're looking for is creating a foil where a foil is another character in a story who contrasts with the main character, usually to highlight one of their attributes.

Juxtaposition is a literary device wherein the author places a person (etc) parallel to another in order to highlight the contrast between the two and compare them.

Non-literary comparisons would be setting up a false equivalency, rigging the deck, or stacking the deck: to manipulate events, information, etc., in order to achieve an advantage or desired result.

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