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transplant is used as verb in a normal sentence. In particulary, transplant is used as noun in some sentence. Is there any reason why we should use 'transplant' as noun form although we have already noun form, 'transplantation'? What is the difference between transplant and transplantation when we use them a noun?

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    Transplant can refer to an event of transplantation, or to the thing that was transplanted. Transplantation can refer to an event, or to the abstract process itself, but not to what got transplanted. – John Lawler Mar 7 '14 at 1:31
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Transplant, when used as a noun, can refer to either the object being transplanted or the act of transplanting itself. Transplantation, on the other hand, can only be used to refer to the act or the process of transplanting.

For example, you would say "the patient's body rejected the transplant," but would not say "the patient's body rejected the transplantation," because what is being rejected is the organ itself, not the act of medical surgery.

This difference in meaning comes from the suffix -ation, which means (according to Merriam-Webster):

the action or process of doing something

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