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Would we hyphenate 'part-time' / 'full-time' as an adverb?

1. Joe worked part-time as a waiter and full-time as a computer programmer. (Can we omit the hyphens in these adverbial uses?)

2. Mike said, "Joe is part-time." (Meaning Joe is a part-time associate. Should we keep the hyphen in this construction?)

3. Joe is a part-timer. (Meaning that Joe is an associate who works part time. Should we keep the hyphen in "part-timer"?)

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In my view the hyphen is not essential in any of the three examples you have given. But if used as a compound adjective before the noun it qualifies it definitely needs, in my opinion to be hyphenated, e.g.

'The club decided to appoint a part-time cook.'

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    Collins agrees: part-time — adj 1. for less than the entire time appropriate to [/often devoted to] an activity: a part-time job ; a part-time waitress — adv 2. on a part-time basis: he works part time. And gives, as do some other authorities, only the hyphenated version of the (agent) compound noun: part-timer — n Feb 27 '14 at 17:20

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