Pro is not an abbreviation, but 'con' is for 'contra.' From the OED:
An argument or consideration in favour of something; reasoning in support of a proposition, thesis, etc. Chiefly in pros and cons (also pros and contras): reasons or arguments for and against something, advantages and disadvantages. Occas. also pro and contra (also pro and con): argument, debate.
And the etymology of 'pro'
Etymology: < classical Latin prō (preposition) before (of place), in front of, for, on behalf of, instead of, in return for, on account of, etc. < the same Indo-European base as ancient Greek πρό forward, before, in front of, earlier than, Sanskrit pra- forth, Early Irish ro- , prefix forming the perfect tense, Gothic fra- , verbal prefix (see discussion at for- prefix1), ultimately showing an ablaut variant of the Indo-European base of fore adv. In English use chiefly after pro and contra at pro adv. 1a and related uses of pro adv.
Arguably 'pro' could be considered an abbreviation for 'prove' in this specific idiom as evidenced by earlier usages of the idiom such as Letters and Papers of J. Shillingford:
The Bysshoppis Court what court he hadde and sholde have, here of was right moche longage and reson prove and contra.
From my own knoweldge of Latin I'd say the phrase 'pro et contra' might mean 'for and opposing' or 'for and against' which means that the translation of the roots is almost identical to the modern understanding of the idiom.