There are stones of 1 kg, 500 grams, 100 grams, or 50 grams used in weighing balance. What are they called in English?
These weighting stones are normally used by vegetable vendors.
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They are called "scale weights" or just "weights". You have a 1kg weight, a 500g weight, and so on.
They are usually sold in sets, enclosed in a felt-lined box supplied with tweezers so as to avoid disturbing the calibrated weight by getting fingerprints on the weights.
Calibration weights are known masses such as a 100g or 500g weight.
The word you are looking for is "masses" or "standard masses." This is what is placed in one pan (or scale) of a balance. Since there are two pans, they are collectively known as "scales."
"Masses" is not only more traditional, but also more precise: after all, since you are preforming your measurement in a constant gravitational field using a comparison, you are indeed measuring the mass and not just the weight of the object.