Adjectives that precede nouns are called attributive adjectives e.g., an angry man. Adjectives ending in -ed or -ing are called participial adjectives because they have the same endings as verb participles. However, not all participial adjectives end with -ed (past participle) and -ing (present participle), if a compound adjective contains an irregular verb than it will take the past participle ending.
a hand-written letter
a candle-lit dinner
an easily-misunderstood question
a built-up area
Often a compound adjective is written with a hyphen, especially if it precedes the noun. Many participial adjectives have no corresponding verb, in which case they are formed by combining a noun with a participle:
a tree-lined avenue
a short-handed team
a short-tempered man
a kind-hearted girl
Compounds formed by a noun ending with -ed are hyphenated in any position in the sentence hence, the first example could be rewritten as "chemicals that are alcohol-based" likewise "a short-tempered man" and "a man who is short-tempered". But in the case of
a man with a short temper
in this phrase, there is no compound adjective, short is an attributive adjective qualifying the noun, temper. Consequently, many of the given examples can also be rewritten without using a compound adjective and a hyphen.
- a dinner lit by candle
- a question that is easily misunderstood
- a letter written by hand
- a girl with a kind heart
More information, for those interested, on compound adjectives see this page.
Thanks to @Edwin Ashworth for pointing out that hyphens are necessary to disambiguate meaning thus you can have 'a man-eating shark' but the phrase, 'a man eating shark' contains a completely different meaning.