I've heard the phrase, "the exception that proves the rule," but it's not clear to me what it means. It sounds self contradictory. What is a good example of "an exception that proves the rule?" Can this phrase be used effectively in formal dialog, or is it only colloquial?
The least stupid usage I have encountered for this phrase -- no real idea whether it's actually to do with its origins -- is when a rule expresses a tendency or preference rather than a hard-and-fast delineation, and the difficulty encountered in going against that tendency demonstrates the force of the rule.
A random example might be a rule that "bears do not dance". The amazing Dr. Florenheimer trains a bear to dance in his traveling circus. This forms an exception to the rule, but the years that it took Dr. Florenheimer to train the bear, along with the expense and injuries to staff, make it an exception that "proves" the rule, in some sense -- at the least, proving that it may not be violated lightly.
The phrase has its origin in the law. It means that a law written in broad terms, but provided with an exception for some special case, is properly understood broadly; because the authors of the law saw fit to make a special exception for special cases.
Driving is not allowed in the park.
is a very broad rule that make no allowance for special cases, and one might see fit to interpret it with some leniency, perhaps allowing ambulances, police cars and early morning deliveries to venues in the park.
On the other hand
Driving is not allowed in the park except for emergency vehicles.
shows that the author has explicitly considered what special cases might merit an exception. So the rule should be interpreted broadly, and delivery vehicles excluded.
The existence of the exception proves that the author meant what he or she said and that the rule applies to cases not excepted.
This is a widely misunderstood and often badly used phrase, commonly said to confirm something in the face of contradictory evidence:
"John always eats his lunches at Chez Blob. Never goes anywhere else."
"Oh yeah? But I just saw him snarfing down some food in Pete's Eats."
"Well, that's just the exception that proves the rule."
When used in this way, it essentially means "I don't care about what you just said, I'm sticking to my interpretation of the facts." (Also, this is the only way I've ever actually heard it used.)
I don't think that the saying should be used in a formal setting because of its widely understood meaning of ignoring some contradictory data.
The version I heard is that if there is an exception to a rule, then there most likely is a rule stating the opposite of the exception in the first place.
For example if you have "Minors are not allowed to drink alcohol" then most likely drinking alcohol isn't forbidden in general. Since the exception for minors would be superfluous if nobody were allowed to drink.
Or if certain drugs is allowed for medical use, then this is the exception to the rule that those drugs are not allowed in general.
We are not talking about strict logic here, but more about perceptions, rules of thumb and colloquial generalizations. The phrase "proves the rule" is not meant in a strict logical sense; rather it is meant to convey that some generalization or rule of thumb tends to be supported, not by an exception alone but by our reaction to the exception.
When a sports commentator puts a microphone in front of a college football player after a game and he turns out to be articulate, everyone is amazed and marvels at how well spoken he is. But he should be articulate since he is a college student. The fact that he is articulate is only of note because experience suggests to us that most football players are not. Listening to them butcher the language week in and week out might lead some fans to generalize that college football players can't talk and perhaps are not really qualified to be students at the schools for which they compete. The articulate football player is then an exception that proves the rule, because of its unlikelihood and our reaction to it.
Working at a Federal Government agency may lead one to deduce that government employees either don't care or are incompetent. When one who has adopted this rule meets a government employee who is both caring and competent, he or she may be overly impressed by that person. After all, we should expect that government employees care about doing a good job and are competent. But when we meet one who actually is, it is an event of note since our actual expectation is the opposite. It is the reaction to the exception that is counter to expectation that tends to prove the rule.
My understanding is that the phrase comes from law. In many cases the extent and limits of a law are not clear until a court case challenges the law and a court decision is handed down which effectively "draws the line", saying that the law does not apply beyond this point.
Apparently in some cases/jurisdictions certain types of laws are not really considered valid until such a court case is decided, and that then is the "exception" that "proves" (makes valid) the "rule" (law).
(No, I don't have a reference for this, but I read it from a reasonably reputable source about 20-30 years back.)
Earlier this month, pixelperfect asked What do you call a minor flaw in a work that makes you realize how perfect/flawless it is otherwise? —
For example, I was listening to an audio book the other day and the author mispronounced a word which got the audience laughing. Until that point, I didn’t even know that there was an audience and that the whole thing was a live recording.
Another example might be that you find litter in a section of a street which is usually super clean. This gets you thinking about how the street cleaners do a really good job. Or imagine the Internet connection at your house breaks down and you thus realize that it has been remarkably reliable for the past 4 years.
It’s both about realizing that something is flawless otherwise and appreciating it.
I believe that this captures the spirit of the common usage of the phrase “the exception that proves the rule”.
It's a play on the proverb "there's an exception to every rule" Wiktionary.
It follows from that proverb that no rule can be correct until you have found an exception to it. That is the exception that proves the rule.