This is a bit complicated, especially with the example you give.
"Mettre en place" suggests putting something in a specific location where it belongs (positionner, placer).
Americans would usually simply say, I placed if putting something in a location, e.g. I placed the book on the nightstand. If they are putting it back where it belongs, they commonly use 'replace'. I replaced to book on the shelf.
You seem to be asking if something was built or assembled ("construit") such that the book now has a place where it now belongs. As such, you might want to say
I assembled the shelves so you can store your books, or
I put up the shelves so you can store your books. (I think this best captures it.)
Finally, there is a slang, "put in (his) place" (mettre à sa place) which means to correct a haughty person so as to embarrass them a bit (Did you see that? I put him in his place!)
I speak French (Canadian) so if you want to correct my assumptions, please do, I will understand if you use French.)