Is the collocation "almost exactly" grammatical, when one is trying to express that something is almost at the edge of being exact? E.g.:
...and it's almost exactly like...
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Yes, I can see no problem with this phrase.
Exactly is an adverb, meaning precisely, perfectly or without error.
Almost is an adverb, and means very nearly, or not quite.
There is no problem using consecutive adverbs to describe a situation, and I can't think of a better, single word substitute for describing a situation where two things are very nearly, but not quite, precise or without error.
I think one could describe identical twins as almost exactly alike, for example.
"Almost exactly" is an oxymoron. Technically, it can be used; it would depend on the circumstances to say whether it truly should though.
Stating that I have almost exactly 3.25 liters in this container implies that I am much closer than if I simply stated that I have almost 3 and a quarter liters.
'Exactly' is one of those words like 'unique'.
Many will argue that something is either unique or it isn't. I remember being told at school (in the 1950s). 'It can't be "almost unique", boy. Something is either unique or it isn't'. I never understood this at the time and still don't now. Why can't something be nearly unique? After all one can in football 'almost score a goal'.
'Exact' is similar. I see no reason at all why something cannot be 'almost exact'. If the exact answer is e.g. 4.43, and 100 people give answers, the three nearest being 4.0, 4.6, and 4.429, I consider it perfectly reasonable to describe the third as 'almost exactly right'.
There is a lot of space on either (/all sides in 3D) side of a point (in space, in time ...)
In almost exactly, 'almost' is a secondary modifier describing nearness to that point, not that point per se.
Extreme adjectives cannot be qualified (*very unique / *more unique) but nearness to that extreme can be (almost unique [I know of one other]; almost exactly 10 pm [3 seconds after]).