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Can "shavelings" be used to refer to Asian monks? Or it only refers to Occidental shaven-headed church men? Can a shaven-headed civilian be called a "shaveling"?

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    You can call them that if you like. But if your hearers have not heard the term before (as I have not), it is not much use for communication. – GEdgar Oct 24 '13 at 12:25
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    Ditto. Precisely. If you're writing a science-fiction novel set on a different planet, you can make up your own names in context. But, while shaveling has a transparent meaning, it's a fossil, and most English speakers will not have any experience of its specific history of use or reference. And it's occidental, just like accidental, except for the first vowel. – John Lawler Oct 24 '13 at 14:07
  • I am not going to use it in dailiy communication. I just want to know when,where,and how people use it, no matter historically or contemporarily:) – dennylv Oct 25 '13 at 0:55
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    And, although it's off-topic, both Oriental and Occidental should be capitalized when they refer to the East and the West. Plus, for whatever reason, "Oriental" isn't that PC when applied to a person; consider using "Asian". – Malvolio Oct 25 '13 at 0:58
  • I would tend to use "skinhead". – Hot Licks May 2 '17 at 1:10
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You certainly can, but you might consider the fact that even fairly obscure words like "cenobite" and "skete" are both more specific and more common than "shaveling"

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Tonsured is the word you are looking for. It refers specifically to cutting or shaving the hair of the head as an outward sign of a monastic vow, and in the Orthodox Christian sacrament of Chrismation.

Cenobite is a monk who lives in a monastic community, rather than as a hermit. Skete is a type of monastic community. Neither of those terms refer specifically to the shorn or shaved head.

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