Can "shavelings" be used to refer to Asian monks? Or it only refers to Occidental shaven-headed church men? Can a shaven-headed civilian be called a "shaveling"?
You certainly can, but you might consider the fact that even fairly obscure words like "cenobite" and "skete" are both more specific and more common than "shaveling"
Tonsured is the word you are looking for. It refers specifically to cutting or shaving the hair of the head as an outward sign of a monastic vow, and in the Orthodox Christian sacrament of Chrismation.
Cenobite is a monk who lives in a monastic community, rather than as a hermit. Skete is a type of monastic community. Neither of those terms refer specifically to the shorn or shaved head.