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Words exist to label periods of time - like week which represents 7 days and fortnight which is used for a 14-day period. Are there other such words used for certain numbers of consecutive days?

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    There is a companion website, ELL, on which to ask basic questions. I'd remove the 'fortnight used for 15 days' before you get downvoted. – Edwin Ashworth Sep 25 '13 at 7:41
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    in the UK, fortnight means 14 days, and I've been told it's not widely used in US English. – Phil M Jones Sep 25 '13 at 7:42
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    Just for fun, you could use a millicentury (about 36.5 days) :-) – Phil M Jones Sep 25 '13 at 7:51
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    I believe George R. R. Martin has done much to promote usage of 'fortnight' in modern English :) – Mykola Sep 25 '13 at 8:11
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    Actually, in French and some other languages, a fortnight (or equivalent) is 15 days. In Welsh, a week is 8 days: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortnight. Of course, we are discussing English language here; just an aside. – nxx Sep 25 '13 at 11:20
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Fortnight is used (or was used until now) for 14 days.

It is more tough with year and month, which stand for 365 or 366 and 29-31 days respectively (at least if they're solar ones). Leap year is 366 days. Quarter is 3 months and one fourth of a year.

Archaic sennight (sevennight) was just another word for week, as well as hebdomad (more facetious than archaic).

Quarantine is 40 days, though limited in its usage.

Meteorologists may call 5 days a pentad.

Catholics had octave for 8 days and still have novena for 9.

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