Your first set of examples use the past simple and show an action or activity that started and ended at a particular time in the past. Your second set of examples use the present perfect, which has different uses and in most cases shows an action that started in the past and is still there. So to unravel your examples,
1.Ann had a red bike for two years. 2.Sue has had a red bike for two years.
The first means Ann had a red bike for two years at some time in the past, she no longer has a red bike. Now the time is either implied from the context, which is not obvious in this example, or is mentioned somewhere in the same conversation, of which we have no idea either. The second means that Sue has and had a red bike for two years.
(3) I had a wonderful bicycle. (4) I've had many wonderful bicycles.
These two mean the same thing as your previous examples. The first means you had a wonderful bicycle at sometime in the past. The time is either implied or is mentioned somewhere in the same conversation of which we have no clue. The second means that you have and had many bicycles over the course of the years or months.
(5) In his lifetime, Uncle Alex had several red bicycles. (6) In his lifetime, Grandpa has had several red bicycles.
In the first example(5), it looks like that the person is no longer alive or has gone underground. Or he is alive and you simply want to describe that he had several bicycles during his lifetime. But in any instance, it means that he had several bicycles in his lifetime. Your second example(6) would be wrong if the person is no longer alive, but if he is then it's meaning is the same as that of the previous examples with the addition of the lifetime clause, which restricts the owning to the person's lifetime. If he is dead, you might need the past perfect or the simple past in there.