What is the shortest term to refer to representatives of peoples and cultures whose mother tongue is English?
Can't I call them joe?
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Native English speakers.
I do not believe that the term "mothertonguers" would be generally well received.
In England, we tend to use a phrase (term?) popularised by Winston Churchill in a book he wrote in the early 20th Century. The phrase is "the English speaking peoples".
Not as humorous (nor as open to misinterpretation) as mothertonguers. :-)
You won't find too many people on the streets of London who would understand what you were talking about if you asked them, 'Are you an Anglophone?' Don't think you'd offend anyone, but don't believe they'd have a clue what you were asking them either. More than likely, they'd think you wanted to borrow (or steal!) their mobile phone (translation: cellphone).
If you were asking what is the correct racial name for someone (in the UK) who is English by descent, a pretty common term is Anglo-Saxon. But even most (British) people of Celtic origin (i.e. Scottish, Welsh, Irish, Cornish) nowadays only speak English.
Nearly all former British colonies, including (but not limited to) the present-day Commonwealth, are inhabited mainly by people whose "mother tongue" is English. So you're really asking for a term that describes or includes dozens of countries. But English-speaking (native English-speaking?) is the best description we've ever been able to come up with.
Really, there is no term (today) for people who speak English. There used to be! Once-upon-a-time they were called Englishmen. :-)
"Anglos" would also be an appropriate term according to Wikipedia.
English is no one's (person or country) native language. And hence, there is no term that has ever been coined to refer people whose mother tongue is English. Hence, it will be like talking something south of the south pole.
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