This sounds like "you cannot do it" to me, but according to the context, I was wondering if this means "cannot you do it?".

Which understanding is correct?

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    Your question needs more content and more detail. Sorry, but you mention according to the context, but what context?! Where did you read or hear this sentence? What was said before? – Mari-Lou A Aug 1 '13 at 17:57
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    It does not mean “cannot you do it?”, because that is ungrammatical in English—you simply cannot say “cannot you do it?”. The correct way of asking is “can you not do it?” or “can’t you do it?”. – Janus Bahs Jacquet Aug 1 '13 at 18:02
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    @JanusBahsJacquet This stems from people being taught that things like don’t and won’t are contractions, and that they should be expanded when writing formally. So they end up turning Won’t you come into the ungrammatical *Will not you come?. – tchrist Aug 1 '13 at 18:06

In general, in the absence of any context, can you not do X means please don't do X. For example

Can you not shout please?

This sentence means please don't shout.

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