I want to visit clubs with attractive women.

This phrase can be interpreted in two ways:

  • I want to visit clubs myself, but the clubs I visit should have attractive women.

  • I want to take attractive women to clubs; the clubs themselves may or may not already have attractive women.

Is there a name for this ambiguity? It seems fairly common. I want to say "dangling participle", but I'm pretty sure that's wrong.

Is this the equivalent of Grouch Marx's "I shot an elephant in my pajamas... how he got into my pajamas, I'll never know"?

  • 2
    Related, at least, if not downright what you're looking for.
    – Robusto
    Jul 24, 2013 at 20:33
  • 3
    A dangling modifier, I would say. In fact the Wikipedia article specifically mentions the Groucho Marx example. The whole quote is then a paraprosdokian, but only the whole phrase, not just the first part.
    – RegDwigнt
    Jul 24, 2013 at 20:41
  • @RegDwighт This should be an answer.
    – bib
    Jul 24, 2013 at 21:59
  • You're missing out on a lot of ambiguity. For instance: "clubs" can mean venue (probably what you refer to) or baseball bat (hammer). Also, attractive can mean a lot of things, e.g. attractive in a magnetic way, gravity way, or emotional way (I assume you mean emotional).
    – aurora
    Jul 24, 2013 at 22:50

3 Answers 3


Your sentence contains an example of ambiguity resulting from a misrelated construction. The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar defines misrelated as follows:

Not attached grammatically to the word or phrase intended by the meaning, either joined to the wrong word or phrase, or completely unattached.

Although terms such as misrelated, dangling, hanging, unattached, etc. are most commonly applied to participles, verbless phrases can also be misrelated.

The offending misrelation in your sentence is not a participle but a prepositional phrase.

  • Though near-identical structures are both grammatically acceptable and unambiguous: I want to visit clubs with my brother. I want to visit clubs with decent beers. Jul 24, 2013 at 22:01
  • 1
    Aren't those unambiguous solely due to context? If someone was studying English purely grammatically and didn't know what "brother" or "beers" meant, this could still be ambiguous?
    – user3065
    Jul 24, 2013 at 23:05
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    How on earth can someone study a natural language without recourse to meaning at some level? Though (as Chomsky rightly emphasised) the study of syntax per se is very important and enlightening, it must never be seen as trumping what the speaker / writer is trying to say - which must also take into account semantics and pragmatics. Aug 8, 2013 at 2:39
  • 3
    @barrycarter,Edwin: I think the inherent ambiguity is always there in the construction itself - it's just a bit hard sometimes to think of a context where the "less likely" one might apply. A brewery salesman, for example, might be remonstrating with his boss that if he's to be sent round some clubs to drum up more business, he only wants to take decent beer [samples] with him, not the cheap rubbish they usually sell. Nov 19, 2014 at 17:17

I think this is called Amphiboly. The first example I ever read was the phrase "half baked chicken".

  • ___________________Great word! Sep 2, 2014 at 22:43

Attachment ambiguity. The prepositional phrase "with attractive women" must be an adjunct of something, but of what? There are two plausible possibilities ("visit" and "clubs"), and that produces the ambiguity.

The sentence is grammatical, and can be (grammatically) parsed in two ways to produce the two alternative meanings.

A dangling modifier is different. We say there is a dangling modifier when the sentence cannot be grammatically parsed to yield the intended meaning. (It might or might not be possible to parse it to yield some other meaning. If there is such a meaning, it might be an absurd one.) Wikipedia's article gives an example "At the age of eight, my family finally bought a dog". Was the family at the age of eight? That is semantically nonsense. If the intended meaning is that the narrator was eight, then the sentence cannot be parsed to yield that meaning.

  • "At the age of eight, my family finally bought the dog" adds yet another ambiguity... maybe the dog is eight.
    – user3065
    Dec 1, 2016 at 20:22
  • 1
    @barrycarter How can you give an age to a family? :) Apr 10, 2017 at 19:29

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